1. Scientific-medical propedeutics (6 hours-ECTS required)

Efficient training will be achieved by a mix of introductory, obligatory and non-obligatory lectures and courses within the Scientific-medical propedeutics element (Table 1: top). Mandatory introductory courses for students with a non-medical background will include medical propedeutics I-III and clinical studies. For students with an MD background the emphasis will be on basic scientific skills (e.g., molecular biology/biochemistry, cell biology, animal studies). The goal of this model is to achieve a balanced knowledge regarding basic scientific and medical aspects among students with different backgrounds.
In addition, a collection of general courses will provide PhD-students with basic abilities and qualifications for their scientific profession. These will include basics in scientific writing skills, scientific English and medical biostatistics. Moreover, students will be taught in ethics, the various aspects of good scientific practice, professional project management, the value and protection of intellectual property rights and the cornerstones of patent issues.